The iliopsoas muscles are the major hip flexor muscles located in the groin. Strains of these muscles in dogs are an easily overlooked diagnosis. Agility dogs or dogs with knee injuries often have iliopsoas strains. Also, they are not uncommon in dogs that recently had orthopedic surgery.
Iliopsoas strains can present as a knee injury due to a one-sided limb lameness. Patients can be toe touching like a dog with a cruciate ligament injury. X-rays are not usually diagnostic for this condition. Diagnosis can usually be made by direct palpation of the area.
The following treatment protocols are used:
- Rest is indicated to prevent further injury to the muscle.
- Gabapentin and/or NSAIDS may help with the pain and inflammation.
- Laser therapy has been shown to promote healing of iliopsoas strains.
- Itchy skin which results in constant scratching, head shaking, and chewing at paws.
- This can cause pink or red discoloration of the fur at chronically licked areas, especially paws, because of the saliva.
- Constant scratching can also cause hair loss and open wounds. The soft hairless belly is a great way to check for lesions—red crusty spots on the stomach often are signs of a skin infection.
- Reoccurring ear infections.
- Red eyes and chronic watery discharge.
- Anti-itch shampoos
- Ear medicine
- Eye drops
- Allergy shots (Allergy shots are provided for severe cases following extensive allergy work ups—allergy testing and a pet dermatologist are available if needed)
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that travels through the blood and can affect joints, organs, or give an overall feeling of illness. Ticks, particularly deer ticks, are carriers of Lyme Disease.
The tick needs to be attached to your pet for 24 to 48 hours before the disease can be transferred. Adult ticks are not killed off by frost and will often just lie dormant for a warmer day. Therefore, ticks present a health concern year round.
Symptoms for Lyme Disease include but are not limited to:
- Loss of Appetite
- Lameness—which can be intermittent, reoccurring, or shifting from joint to joint
- Stiffness, Discomfort, and Pain
- Swelling of Joints
There are two different blood tests that can be used to check for Lyme Disease. There is an in-house blood test available with results in ten minutes. There are more in-depth blood panels that can be sent out if Lyme Disease or other tick-borne diseases are suspected.
If discovered early, Lyme Disease can be treated with a short dose of antibiotics. More difficult cases, which have affected the organs, may require more extensive treatments. Lyme Disease may also lay dormant for a while and occasionally reoccur and need another course of antibiotics.
There are simple ways you can help prevent Lyme Disease in your pet:
- Year round flea and tick prevention is available through your veterinarian, online or local participating retailer. It is best to administer your pet’s flea and tick prevention year round since adult ticks are active almost all year.
- Check your pet after playing outside and immediately remove any ticks found.
- Avoid letting your pets play in higher grasses and thickly wooded areas.
- You can do treatments for your own yard to protect against ticks.
- Yearly blood tests are recommended to catch any possible positive results that are asymptomatic.
- Lyme Disease vaccines are available through your veterinarian as well. They can be started at any age. An initial injection is followed up with a booster two weeks later with a yearly vaccine recommended.
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) and Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS) are not just one problem, but a myriad of clinical symptoms involving the cat’s urinary system. It is very important to address these with your veterinarian promptly. Symptoms include:
- Painful or more frequent urination
- Prolonged squatting in the litter box
- Increased visits to the litter box
- Bloody or cloudy urine
- Dribbling urine
- Excessive licking at the urinary opening
- Excessive water intake
- Inability to urinate
FLUTD and FUS can have many different causes which include:
- Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder)
- Bladder stones, crystals, or debris
- Urinary tract blockage
- Trauma to the urinary tract
- Congenital abnormality
Male cats are more prone to urethral blockage due to their narrow urethras which is the tube that carries the urine from the bladder. Urinary blockage can lead to rupture of the bladder and/or kidney failure.
Urinary problems can be very serious and potentially fatal if left untreated. If you notice any of the symptoms listed above—seek immediate veterinary care for your cat or kitten.
The importance of heartworm prevention cannot be overstated. Heartworm disease is caused by the bite of a mosquito that is a carrier of the disease. Heartworm is not spread from pet to pet—it is only caused by the bite of a mosquito. Heartworm disease causes lung disease, heart failure, damage to other organs, and death in dogs, cats, and ferrets. It has been reported in all 50 states, but is prevalent along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.
Your pet is at risk for contracting heartworm disease even if he or she lives inside or only goes outside briefly. Mosquitos do get into homes and can be found in our area throughout the year. This puts your pet at constant risk. Year round prevention is strongly recommended!
Your pet should be tested for heartworm disease before a preventive treatment is started. This can be done in minutes at your veterinarian’s office. If your pet is negative for heartworm disease—a preventive treatment should be started immediately. There are many options available for heartworm prevention. These include chewable and non-chewable tablets, topical liquids that are applied to the skin, and injectable products. Ask your veterinarian which is the best choice for your pet.
If your pet is diagnosed with heartworm disease the treatment is not easy on the pet physically or on the owner’s finances. The treatment includes an injection with an arsenic-containing drug, exercise restrictions, other oral medications and/or topical medications. Treatment can be very toxic to the pet and can cause serious complications including blood clots in the lungs. It also requires multiple veterinary visits and possibly hospitalization. The cost for treatment can add up quickly.
For the sake of your pet’s health please talk with your veterinarian about using a heartworm preventive. It could save your pet’s life and save you a lot of money in the long run.
Diabetes in pets is common in the veterinary world. Genetics, certain breeds, obesity, and underlying diseases can be factors for diabetes. Most pets with diabetes will need to be managed and monitored for the rest of their lives. In some cases, diet and weight loss can cause a remission of the disease.
What Are the Symptoms?
- Increased thirst and urination
- Increased appetite
- Increased possibility of infections, such as urinary tract infections
- Severe weight loss
- Trouble breathing
- Coma/loss of consciousness
If early signs of diabetes are present, the testing is often simple. There are two ways to check for diabetes. Both are quick and these tests can be run in the hospital for immediate results:
- Bloodwork is run to check blood glucose levels. Depending on when your pet last ate, glucose levels should range from 80-120. New unmanaged diabetics often have numbers in the 200s to 300s.
- Urine is also collected and checked for Ketones or sugar. When the blood glucose is over 180 the kidneys are unable to filter the sugar and it is released into the urine. When both blood and urine sugar is positive, a diagnosis of diabetes is made and insulin should be given immediately.
When starting to care for a diabetic pet, most hospitals will provide owners with an in-depth diabetic consult. This includes showing owners how to administer insulin, providing them with safety tips, noting the symptoms to watch for, and providing other important diabetic disease information. This consult gives the pet owner the knowledge and confidence to manage their pet’s diabetes at home.
After starting insulin more blood testing is done until the appropriate dose of insulin is found. Your pet might have to make several day trips to the vet until blood glucose levels are regulated. Diabetes can then be managed from home with the owner’s vigilance with regard to administering insulin and observing the patient for any changes. At-home glucometers can be purchased through your veterinarian. They can enable owners to check levels immediately in case of a potential emergency.
Diabetes can be a daunting diagnosis at first but with your veterinarian’s help—your pet can live comfortably and happily for many years.